To reference this document please use:
Love, T. (1997). Appendix 5 of Social, Environmental and Ethical Factors in Engineering Design Theory: A Post Positivist Approach. Unpublished PhD thesis,
Cross (1989) defined the necessary skills of designers as,
· The use of technical drawing conventions.
· The ability to associate mental concepts of artefacts with technical drawings and other representations.
· The ability to think subjectively.
· The ability to refine by iteration.
· Skills with methods of engineering science.
· The ability to deal with problem and solution together.
· The ability to sketch and model to externalise and clarify complex situations.
· To be able to evaluate against design criteria.
· The ability to live or function in an area of uncertainty.
· The ability to communicate with specialists.
· An adequate knowledge of relevant objects and principles (including tacit knowledge).
· A knowledge of processes - especially design and problem-solving processes. These should be intuitively or consciously available to the designers.
· Adequate judgement.
· An open minded attitude along with a sense of care and attention.
· Sufficient motivation.
· An ability to communicate appropriately.
· An appropriate level of stress.
· Recognition and ownership of the existence of a problem.
For Glegg (1971) the mind of a designer had three realms of activity:
· The inventive: which can be encouraged by filling the mind and the imagination with the context of the problem and then relaxing and thinking of something else.
· The artistic: which is to do with style.
· The rational: disciplined thinking applied over the entire field of design from theoretical analysis to economic realities.
For Nevill and Crowe (1974) human engineering designers had the following main characteristics,
· A very large (in fact, the principal) source of information regarding the problem space, (perhaps stored in long term memory as a list structure).
· A very flexible capability for extensive processing of small quantities of information.
· The ability to concentrate on only one thing at a time.
· The ability to utilise illogical thoughts, to pretend, to dream, to fantasise.
· The ability to operate with incomplete information, draw inference, make intuitive leaps.
· A large set of experiences indicating how things can and ‘should’ be done.
· Certain strong habits, inhibitions or patterns of thinking and designing.
· A significant number of conceptual blocks including those of perceptual, emotional, cultural and environmental nature.
· Many prejudices and preconceived ideas about the world, most of which are subconscious.
· Performance significantly dependent upon emotional state.
· Highly stimulated and motivated by interactions with others.
· A finite quantity of energy, limited attention span and availability, gets tired, bored, frustrated, sleepy.
· Very broad communicative abilities, sensitive to realm of beliefs and feelings.
· Finds it basically enjoyable to use a large powerful machine that has the characteristics of a personal friend who offers unconditional acceptance and support.